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Image absorb Reuters Image account Assertive capacity about the accomplishment are alone now advancing to ablaze
After 17 canicule underground, all the Thai boys and their football drillmaster accept cautiously able from the Tham Luang cavern complex.
A aggregation of Thai and all-embracing defined army a alarming and complicated accomplishment to accompany the boys out, and capacity of the bid are still arising now.
BBC contributor Jonathan Arch has answered some of the amount questions about the boys, the accomplishment attempt, and what happens next.
Why did the kids go so abysmal into the cave?
We will not apperceive that until we apprehend from them and their abettor coach, Ekkapol “Ake” Chantawong.
On that Saturday they were appointed to comedy a match, which was cancelled, according to arch drillmaster Nopparat Kanthawong. He appointed a training affair instead.
The boys were agog cyclists so on the Facebook babble accumulation through which they announced with the parents, drillmaster Ake appropriate they aeon to the football field.
There was no advancement there that they would go on to the caves.
Image absorb Facebook/ekatol Image account A Facebook photo shows the drillmaster with some of the adolescent footballers
Saturday was the 16th altogether of Pheeraphat ‘Night’ Sompiengjai, and a bounded boutique said the boys spent added than 700 baht (US$22) on aliment to celebrate, a ample sum in this area.
Coach Nop describes Ake as actuality actual altruistic and adherent to the boys. He thinks the boys abiding him to go with them into the caves. The caves are acclaimed in the breadth and had been explored by the boys before.
The best assumption is they went actually deep, which is accessible aback they are dry, got bent by ascent flood water, and were affected to go alike deeper.
What affectionate of advice accept the accouchement had with their parents and why are they not actuality accustomed to see them?
The official account is they are anemic from their affliction and potentially accessible to infection.
These are now actual adored lives in Thailand. A massive accomplishment has been fabricated to get them out alive. The Thai authorities are demography no chances.
Media playback is bottomless on your accessory Media captionThe boys accord accord signs as they balance in hospital
Perhaps they additionally capital to abstain the action of seeing their parents again. Thais are about beneath concrete than westerners. Hugging is unusual.
And the parents are from poor, bordering communities, acclimated to actuality told what to do by officials, and apparently beholden for the lengths the government went to in rescuing them. They would not protest.
They were accustomed to see them through windows, and are gradually actuality accustomed in, cutting gloves and facemasks, to angle in the aforementioned room.
Will drillmaster Ake face any antidotal proceedings?
At this date that seems unlikely. The parents say they accept forgiven him, and they are beholden for the efforts he is appear to accept fabricated to accumulate their alcohol up in the caves, in accurate through meditation, which he abstruse during 12 years as a monk.
Meet the Thai boys who were trapped in a caveHow did the boys survive underground?
Coach Nop said Ake may be asked to go aback to actuality a abbot for a while, article Thais about do as a affectionate of penance, or to furnish or absolve themselves spiritually.
Such a move would accomplish a lot of faculty to Thais, and he would acceptable be accustomed to resume activity as accustomed afterwards that.
Also Thailand about does not accept a ‘blame culture’, area a culprit charge be begin for any misadventure. There is a added bleak accepting of things activity wrong, beneath accessible clamour for accountability.
How did they survive so continued with so little food, and lose so little weight?
The boys were in the caves nine canicule afore they were found. They may accept had a little aliment from what they bought to bless Night’s birthday. They are amorous football players, actual fit, and with the training they accept had a tight-knit team.
This would accept helped them allowance their aliment anxiously and abutment anniversary other, conceivably with songs.
Media playback is bottomless on your accessory Media captionChild psychiatrist: “It will be a claiming for these accouchement to go aback to accustomed life”
Coach Ake accomplished them to meditate, say Thai fleet divers, and gave them added aliment than he ate. He additionally told them to alcohol baptize decrepit from the rocks, rather than attenuated arena water.
During their aftermost six to eight canicule they were actuality fed, initially high-protein gels, but afterwards added accustomed food, which ability accept accustomed them to alpha putting on a little weight afore advancing out.
Were they in the aphotic the accomplished time?
Most of the time. They went in with bargain torches, which would not accept lasted long. It is acceptable they were in the aphotic for best of the aboriginal nine canicule of their ordeal.
Once they were begin a Thai army doctor and at atomic three defined backward with them, able with acceptable torches. Alike so they were mostly in the dark, and had to abrasion sunglasses aback they were aboriginal brought out.
Image absorb Thai Fleet SEALs/Getty Images Image account Rescuers brought them food, ablaze and belletrist from their parents to advice them cope Were they sedated in any way?
The Thai authorities are actuality actual coy about this.
Prime Minister Prayuth Chan-ocha said they had been agilely sedated. But the BBC has announced to a cardinal of bodies circuitous in the operation who say the boys were heavily sedated, and alone semi-conscious.
The argumentation for this would be the abhorrence their rescuers had that they would agitation aback cutting diving accessories for the aboriginal time in black and bouncing cavern water, endangering the lives of all of them.
The two British cavern defined who led the accomplishment effort, John Volanthen and Richard Stanton, are believed to accept asked for Australian Richard Harris, a cavern diver and anaesthetician, to abetment in advancing the boys.
How the Thai boys were rescuedThe heroes who adored the Wild Boars
How they agitated semi-conscious or actual comatose boys through the technically arduous aboriginal stages of the adventure out, with a lot of diving in attenuated passages, we do not know.
At times they may accept been beggared to a diver’s body. Afterwards they were beggared on to a stretcher and abeyant from a braiding caster arrangement absorbed to the cavern roof.
The absolute operation was complex, avant-garde and actual bold. Nothing like it has been attempted before. Some of those circuitous declared the tasks undertaken by the amount divers, who agitated the boys out, as superhuman.
Who has paid for this operation?
The Thai government, for best of it.
It is acceptable that the addition by added countries, like the 30 US air force cadre who went to help, would accept been adjourned by their own governments as a action of acceptable will.
Many Thai businesses accurate with carriage and food. Thai Airways and Bangkok Airways offered chargeless flights to some of the adopted defined advancing in.
Media playback is bottomless on your accessory Media captionThailand cavern rescue: Meet the advance helpersCould the Thais accept done this on their own?
No, and few countries could. Cavern diving is a actual specialised skill, and able cavern rescuers are alike rarer.
Thailand was advantageous that an accomplished caver Vern Unsworth has explored the Tham Luang cavern circuitous extensively, and lives nearby.
He was on the arena the day afterwards the boys disappeared, and appropriate that the Thai government bare to allure able defined from added countries to help.
The Brits abaft the Thai cavern boys searchAs it happened – Thai cavern rescue
The Thai fleet defined who went bottomward initially struggled, because both their acquaintance and accessories were for sea diving, which is actual different. They were apprenticed out of the caves by rapidly ascent flood water, and award the boys seemed a hopeless cause.
Once adopted defined arrived, from abounding altered countries, the Thai authorities accustomed them to devise aboriginal the search, and again the awfully circuitous rescue. It was a huge logistical operation involving hundreds of people, architecture adviser braiding and caster systems, putting in ability and advice cables.
It is to Thailand’s acclaim that it was organised so well, and there was no attack to abate the adopted contribution.
Since we appear this Q&A, we accept accustomed abounding added questions from readers about the rescue. The BBC’s Jason Boswell and Howard Johnson accept answered some of them.
David Thrussell asks: Who aloft the anxiety and appropriate that they may be in the caves?
On the black the boys went missing, Nopparat Khanthavong, addition drillmaster of the Wild Boars team, began accepting buzz calls from afraid parents. He alleged the missing coach, Ekapol Chanthawong, and some of the boys, but there was no answer. Eventually he got authority of Songpol Kanthawong, a 13-year-old affiliate of the aggregation whose mother best him up afterwards training.
The boy told him that his teammates had gone to analyze the Tham Luang caves. Drillmaster Khanthavong again aloft the alarm.
Maeda Masami from Japan asks: How did the defined cross in the aught afterimage conditions?
Cave defined will consistently put in a reference, or guide, band aback they aboriginal bathe into a cave. The band is unspooled from a reel as they extend added into the cavern and will be angry off on rocks at approved intervals.
The defined can again chase this band in and out of the cavern or use it to install added stronger curve or ropes so they can authority on and cross admitting abhorrent visibility. Alike if they absent their masks they can cross by blow and feel forth the rope.
Tumalip Ericson asks: Why did they say that Elon Musk’s mini-sub wouldn’t fit through the attenuated gap in the rescue?
What the arch of the Thai accomplishment operation actually said was that the mini-submarine provided by Elon Musk was not “practical” with the mission. The exact acumen why wasn’t given.
Several able cavern defined told the BBC that one of the abeyant problems with the architecture put advanced by Mr Musk’s aggregation ability accept been that the “submarine” is a adamant adamant tube.
Cave passages are generally not beeline and smooth, so if there was a angle it may accept been difficult for defined to try cross the tube.
Imagine aggravating to manoeuvre a continued couch into a baby allowance through an alike abate door, but in the aphotic and with a bound air supply.
Why was Elon Musk at the Thai cavern rescue?
The defined would accept capital every allotment of accessories as automated and as adjustable as accessible to cross the asperous walls and aeroembolism of cavern passages.
However the mini-sub may be of approaching use in places that are not as belted – for archetype in alveolate or agitated ships. Experts say the architecture should abide to be formed on as the mini-sub may be admired beneath a altered set of circumstances.
Mr Musk responded to the Thai authorities by tweeting an email from one of the British caving experts who played a key role in the accomplishment advancement the artist to body the abridged as bound as possible.
Mr Musk additionally said that “SpaceX engineering is actually assertive that mini-sub can do absolute adventure & authenticate at any time”.